Work: Not provided
Composer: Baden Powell and Vinicius de Moraes
Interpreter: Hamilton de Holanda
Source: Audio originally posted by Youtube Channel Myriam Taubkin, titled “Canto de Ossanha – Hamilton de Holanda”.
Instruments: Mandolin and piano
Work: São Jorge
Composer: Not provided
Interpreters: Hamilton de Holanda (mandolin), André Mehmari (piano)
Source: Video originally published by the stúdio Monteverdi Youtube Channel, titled “São Jorge – André Mehmari e Hamilton de Holanda”.
Mandolin with flat bottom. The strap is made of metal. There is a fabric strap, used by the musician to hold the instrument close to the body. There are four sets of strings tuned in Gl2-D3-A3- and E4. The strings are picked with a plectrum. There is a mark on the soundboard, probably some ornament that no longer exists. The instrument has no bridge.
The mandolin derives from the Italian mandola and the French mandore, equivalent instruments of the 16th century. These instruments were bigger with six to eight string orders, that is, six to eight pairs of strings, although there were smaller mandolas in Italy and in Germany, with four or five pairs of strings. Italians started to call the mandola a mandolino and the instrument became very popular between the 17th and 18th centuries. In the 19th century, the Monzino luthier family from Milan made various structural modifications in the mandolino, reinforcing the body and making it bigger. In the 19th century, the Vinaccia Family continued the changes started by the Monzinos, and built the modern mandolin, or Neapolitan mandolin,with four pairs of strings, deep body, decorated soundboard, tuned like the violin G2-D3-A3-E4, and strings picked by a plectrum. In the 20th century, the family of modern mandolins of straight bottom continued to be rather popular, used in jazz, bluegrass, and popular Irish music. In Brazil, the instrument is part of ensembles that play the choro, musical genre originated in Rio de Janeiro at the beginning of the 19th century and still very popular.
Text written in collaboration with Professor Paulo Sá of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ).
BETHENCOURT; BORDAS; CANO; CARVAJAL; SOUZA; DIAS; LUENGO; PALACIUS; PIQUER, ROCHA, RODRIGUEZ; RUBIALES; RUIZ, 2012.