Work: Caprice nº 24
Composer: Niccolò Paganini
Interpret: Alexandre Markov
Source: Audio originally posted by Youtube Channel Crackadackas, titled “Paganini Caprice no.24 [HQ]”.
Instruments: Violin and piano
Work: Sicilienne and Rigaudon
Composer: Fritz Kreisler
Interpreters: Sean Avram Carpenter (violin), Gabriela Martinez (piano)
Source: Video originally published by THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART (www.metmuseum.org), titled “Violin, Antonio Gragnani active 1765 1795, Livorno, 1783”. Production: Digital Media Department, THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART. Original links: <http://youtu.be/7hxOZOIuB-U> and < http://www.metmuseum.org/metmedia/video/collections/mi/strad-duet-liebesleid?chanID=31875206-32b6-439e-b2f7-d4d43a258f29>.
The instrument has a soundboard made of European pine and the bottom made of maple wood (also European), with dense veins. The strand is incrusted and possibly made by the manufacturer himself. The tailpiece and the fingerboard are made of ebony, the tuning pegs (original) are made of Brazilian rosewood. The instrument also has a chinrest attached to the left lower end. The four strings are tuned G2-D3-A3-E4. In order to play, the musician rests the lower end on the left side of his neck, touches the strings with the bow, which is guided by his right hand, at the same time as the left hand fingers press the strings to produce the notes. The Museum’s specimen does not have a bow.
The violin is the soprano member of the family of the bow chordophones, which include the viola and the cello. The instrument has a great sustained sound capacity and a great spectrum of expression and intensity. Its sonority is usually obtained by the smooth sliding of the bow over the strings; the vibrations are transmitted through the bridge to the soundboard, and through the soul to the bottom. The four strings violin, already known in 1550, was preceded by a three strings violin. The latter was a cross between the rebec, the Renaissance rabeca and the lira de braccio (developed form of rabeca). At the dawn of the 16th century, the Italian school of violin makers appeared (Andrea Amati in Cremona, Gasparo de Saló in Brescia), making adaptations and improvements in the instrument. These modifications were important so that the structure would enable musicians to play the works of composers of the 17th century, who were more demanding, particularly regarding operas, sonatas and concerts. In the 19th century, orchestras and concert rooms required more of the sound potential of the instrument, and the luthiers from this period improved manufacturing techniques even more. In 1800, the shape and technique of violins had already been standardized, despite the fact that the chinrest was invented and added around 1820, by Spohr. However, this was considered a modification of minor importance. Nowadays, the violin still goes through some adaptations: internal reinforcement, higher elevated bridge, neck in a sharper angle in relation to the body (to allow more tension on the strings), longer fingerboard (to reach higher notes). The present repertoire for violins is large: sonatas, chamber music, concerts, light music, pieces seeking to show a high technical level, among others. Besides, like other bow chordophones, the violin now can be electronically amplified, and in this case, it has a hollow structure of different shapes.
BASE MINERVA, 2014.
BETHENCOURT; BORDAS; CANO; CARVAJAL; SOUZA; DIAS; LUENGO; PALACIUS; PIQUER, ROCHA, RODRIGUEZ; RUBIALES; RUIZ, 2012.
NICOLAS KRASSIK – SITE OFICIAL, 2014.
THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART, 2014.