Instrument: Kena and guitar
Composer: Víctor Jara
Performer: Christian Ley Monar
Source: Audio originally published on the YouTube channel vientosdemitierra with the title “CHARAGUA (Víctor Jara) – Christian Ley Monar”.
Work: Not determined
Composer: Not determined
Performer: Leonardo Garcia
Source: Video originally published on the Leonardo Garcia YouTube channel with the title “Quena solo. Leonardo Garcia – ‘Horo-escapade’”.
Instruments: Kena and guitar
Composer: Alicia Maguiña
Interpreters: Sigi Velásquez (kena), Lucho González (guitar)
Source: Video originally published on the Youtube channel Quenuto channel with the title “Quena – Sigi Velásquez / Guitar – Lucho González / Popurri de Música Criolla del Peru”.
Bamboo made flute formed by a single piece. It has six holes, five on the instrument’s front and one on the back for the thumb. The instrument has an extension of three octaves approximately. To play, the musician blows placing the inferior lip directly on the external edge of the flute’s upper end, where there is a notch.
The kena is an instrument from South America, common in Bolivia, Peru, North of Chile and North of Argentina, and less found in Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas. The name Kena probably comes from the name kena-kena, which is a flute made of the cane groove known since the 16th century, which is still used in rural communities of Aymara, on the Bolivian plateau, especially near Lake Titicaca. Bone made Kenas dated 900 B.C. were found in archeological sites in Peru, showing that the instrument’s presence in the Andean culture is even older. The kena is used during Carnival celebrations in many small rural cities on the South of the Andes, and in rural festivals on the dry months of winter, accompanied by drums.
BETHENCOURT; BORDAS; CANO; CARVAJAL; SOUZA; DIAS; LUENGO; PALACIUS; PIQUER, ROCHA, RODRIGUEZ; RUBIALES; RUIZ, 2012.
GROVE MUSIC ONLINE, 2014.